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エンパワーメントのエッセンス;父権主義(パターナリズム)

女性グループとエンパワーメント

に関して、京王線さんからのコメントです。


女性のエンパワーメントにはさくらぎちょうさんがブログに書いたものの他に既存の構造(父権主義)からの打破というのがあります。
ポイントはパワーリレーション(力関係)の変化です。
以下は私の修士論文の一つのコーナー。


2.1.1. What is Women's Empowerment?
Development literature tends to refer 'empowerment' as increasing the power of those disadvantaged in prevailing social relations. The concept of empowerment, in this sense, applies to both genders whereas disadvantaged men are almost as powerless as poor women in access to material resources in the public domain, however men, remain privileged within the patriarchal structure (Kabeer, 1999b:12-3). Therefore 'women's empowerment' has a special implication. For activist feminist groups who originally demanded women 's empowerment, the latter meant changes in the processes and structures that reproduce women's subordination and oppression (Young, 1993:158). In order to overcome these structures, they focus on the importance of women 's awareness on unequal gender relations through building confidence, self-reliance, internal-strength (cf. Moser, 1998, Young, 1993, Oxaal and Baden, 1997:1-2, Longwe, 1995, Kabeer, 1999, 2000).



Batliwala (1997) defines women's empowerment as a process of changing existing power relations on material, human and intellectual resources. She sees that power relations must change through redistribution of resources by giving people much more equal access and control over resources. She also sees that it is not enough to give women education, access to the labour market and employment but to change the ideology that constructs the family value, the educational system, the religion as well as the social, economic, legal and political structures that constantly reproduce these power relations which could be gender-biased. However, to change the ideology, she says women must gain confidence to change the low image of themselves and understand their capacities. In order to achieve this, she emphasises the process starting with consciousness raising, mobilising and organising women into groups.



Kabeer (1997, 1999a, 1999b, 2000) defines women' s empowerment as 'a process by which those who have been denied to make strategic life choices [1] acquire such an ability '. She sees that women need to develop critical consciousness in looking at their position. Because for those women who internalised their culturally perceived less-valued social status, would choose to accept subordinated position to men even if they would be given equal material, social [2], human resources [3] (Nussabaum, 1995:61-87). As oppressed people may lack the courage to choose to develop and use their capabilities, women lack the will to do so because they themselves have low self esteem (Kabeer, 1994, Nussbaum, 1995, Sen, 1990). Consequently, women' s empowerment include both individual changes in inner-self and collective action stressing the importance of awareness of women themselves 'to recognise their deprivation and their potential ability, and choose to develop and use their capabilities' (Kabeer, 2000) . Meaning that women should recognise their unjust subordinated position so that they can be agents for changing unequal power relations.



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[1] Choices that are critical for people to live the lives they want. Ex) Choice of livelihood, freedom of movement, whether to marry, who to marry, whether they have children, how many children to have, etc (Kabeer, 2001:19)

[2] Social resources are made up of claims, obligations and expectations which inhere in the relationships, networks, and connections which prevail in different spheres of life and which enable people to improve their situation and life chances beyond what would be possible through their effort alone (Kabeer, 2000:20)

[3] Human resources are knowledge, skill, creativity and imagination ( op.cit)



そのとおり!

と言ってみたものの、実は筆者英語読解能力もアカデミックな論文読解能力も貧弱なので京王線さんの論文をちゃんと理解したわけではありません。


が、最後の『Kabeer (1997, 1999a, 1999b, 2000) defines women' s empowerment as 'a process by which those who have been denied to make strategic life choices [1] acquire such an ability '. She sees that women need to develop critical consciousness in looking at their position. Because for those women who internalised their culturally perceived less-valued social status, would choose to accept subordinated position to men even if they would be given equal material, social [2], human resources [3] (Nussabaum, 1995:61-87). As oppressed people may lack the courage to choose to develop and use their capabilities, women lack the will to do so because they themselves have low self esteem (Kabeer, 1994, Nussbaum, 1995, Sen, 1990). Consequently, women' s empowerment include both individual changes in inner-self and collective action stressing the importance of awareness of women themselves 'to recognise their deprivation and their potential ability, and choose to develop and use their capabilities' (Kabeer, 2000) . Meaning that women should recognise their unjust subordinated position so that they can be agents for changing unequal power relations.』はエンパワーメントの本質です。
それのみならず、

「women」と「men」を、「住民」と「行政官」「貧困住民」と「裕福な住民」あるいは、「患者」と「医者」、「生徒」と「教師」、「非障害者」と「障害者」.....

と置き換えてもこの文章は成立し、それがエンパワーメントアプローチの汎用性をあらわしているともいえると思います。

京王線さん! 能力のない筆者のために、日本語でわかりやすく解説してもらえませんか?

I absolutely agree with this:
"women need to develop critical consciousness in looking at their position. Because for those women who internalised their culturally perceived less-valued social status, would choose to accept subordinated position to men even if they would be given equal material, social [2], human resources [3]"
But, won't it be even better, if men do recognize it too? v-290
[ 2007/10/10 22:00 ] [ 編集 ]

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